Ephesus 2017

Ephesus (or Ephesos or Ephes) is located in the western part of Turkey along the Aegean Sea near the historical town of Selcuk (Seljuk), which is between  Izmir (ancient Symrna) and Aydin.  Ephesus was originally constructed on a bay where the Kucuk Menderes River (classical Kaystros).  This is area is almost in the middle of ancient Ionia.  The Ioanians conquered Ephesus in the 11th century B.C.

The following photos of Ephesus were taken in October 2017.

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Library of Celsus


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Library of Celsus


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Curetes Street


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Trajan Fountain along Curetes Street


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Trajan Fountain along Curetes Street

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Varius Baths


Varius Baths

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Scholastica Baths


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Scholastica baths


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Latrine (public toilets) part of the Scholastica baths


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Latrine (public toilets)


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Latrine (public toilets)


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Latrine (public toilets)


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Latrine (public toilets)

Terrace houses at Ephesus


Terrace houses under roof.


 Terrace houses at Ephesus where the wealthy lived during the Roman period


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Marble Street looking toward Great Theater


Marble Street with large underground sewer.

Roof in background is the location of the terrace houses.

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The Great Theatre


The Great Theatre

Show drainage system in theatre.





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The Ayasuluk Fortress is shown in the background.

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The column to the right is at the Temple of Artemis.

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Ancient Bidar Fort

Bidar Fort is situated in Bidar, India in the northern plateau of Karnataka, India. The fort, the city and the district all have the name Bidar. Sultan Alla-Ud Din Bahman of the Bahmanid Dynasty shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1427 and built Bidar fort along with a number of Islamic monuments, with over 30 monuments inside Bidar fort. Bidar fortress  (present day) was rebuilt using red laterite stone around the old fort in 1428 by Ahmed Shah Bahmani.

A karez was built in order to provide drinking water inside the Bidar fort.

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Inside of entrance to fort



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Above the fountain is a cistern used to store water 


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Above fountain is a cistern (large rectangular shaped) used to store water 


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Pool below fountain and downstream channel


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View of flow surface of the fountain


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Water features of Ancient Samos

Samos island is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea off the coast of Turkey (modern city of Kusadasi), from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale Strait Samos. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, was from Samos. In classical antiquity the island was a center of the Ionian culture.

In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates, during which time the engineer Eupalinus dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro. The purpose of the tunnel was an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water.  Also the tunnel was the utmost defensive importance as it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply.  The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Pythagoreion.  Another post addresses the tunnel in more detail.

Ancient Samos was built using many ancient water technologies including aqueducts, reservoirs, cisterns,  swimming pool, drainage channels, wells, fountains, and a bath complex.  The Eupalinus tunnel was pre-Roman and the remaining photos of ancient Samos were of the Roman era.

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Tunnel of Eupalinas


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Reservoir along Eupalinus Aqueduct



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Eupalinus Aqueduct –  cistern



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Pythagoreion – UNESCO World Heritage Site

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Swimming pool

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Drainage channel

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Part of a fountain

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Samos Island (1574)

Giovanni Francesco Camocio. Isole famose porti, fortezze, e terre maritime sottoposte alla Ser.ma Sig.ria di Venetia, ad altri Principi Christiani, et al Sig.or Turco, Venice, alla libraria del segno di S.Marco (1574)

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Water Technologies at Ancient Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)




Drainage channel

Retaining wall at end of channel

Retaining wall to store drainage water








Channel and cistern entrance at gate



Channel under stone slabs

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Tunnel of Samos (Eupalinus Tunnel)


The Eupalinus Tunnel (Tunnel of Samos) was part of the ancient city of Samo’s aqueduct.  The tunnel was built in the mid-6th century B.C. and has been referred to as one of the most significant technical achievement of antiquity.  The tunnel was described by Herodotus the “amphistomon orygma” (double-mouthed tunnel) because of it’s two openings.  Project engineer for the tunnel was Eupalinus.  The tunnel was in use for at least 1,100 years and was abandoned when clay pipes became completely clogged allowing no water flow.

The tunnel was excavated, using hammers and chisels, through the limestone simultaneously from both the north and south sides and intersected in a fairly straight line.  Time to excavate this tunnel has been estimated in the range of 8 to 10 years (ca. 550 B.C.)  The tunnel is the central section of the Eupalinos Aqueduct having a length of 1,036 meters.  The overall scheme of the tunnel was the large tunnel (interior dimensions of 1.8 x 1.8 meters) below which a shaft (ditch) with a depth that varied from 4 meters at the northern end to 8.9 m at the southern end.  At the bottom of shaft is a corridor (ca. 0.60 meter wide). In the shaft the clay pipe was placed where water flowed.

Eupalinus Aqueduct


Eupalinus aqueduct started at the Ayades spring where water was collected in a rectangular reservoir covered by stone slabs.  From the reservoir, water was transferred from the reservoir by an underground 890 feet long clay pipe to the northern entrance of the tunnel.  Flow of around 400 cubic meters for the system has been estimated.  Water from the southern exit of the tunnel flowed in an underground channel, with manholes at various intervals, to the ancient city of Samos.  Reservoirs and fountains received the water.








Opening to access tunnel




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Shows modern-day metal grate over the vertical shaft.



Shows vertical shaft at the bottom of which is the corridor where clay pipe was placed.











Shows the positioning of the upper part of the tunnel and the excavated section below the tunnel where the clay pipes was placed.  On the right is the layout of the Eupalinus aqueduct.



Portion of Eupalinus aqueduct downstream of the tunnel.



Above two photo taken near outlet of the tunnel looking towards the modern day city.



Apostol, T.M. (2004) The Tunnel of Samos, Engineering & Science, No. 1, pp. 31-40.






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Karez at Naubad, Bidar, India


The Naubad Karez is estimated to have been constructed (by the Bahmani kings) during the Bahmani period (1347-1518 A.D.) in Bidar in the state of Karnataka, India.  The Bahmanis had their roots in Iran adopting their knowledge of qanats (or karez).  Bidar is located in the 130 km from Hyderabad in the center of the Deccan plateau.  The upper crust of the plateau is laterite with a limonitic surface.


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Laterite formation.




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Puquios of Nasca in the Peruvian Desert

Nasca and the puquios

  • The Nasca region is located in the Peruvian Desert
  • The Nasca culture (AD 1 – 750) was a period which has been divided into an early period (AD 1 – 400), a transactional period (AD 400 – 500), and a late period (AD 500 – 750). Nasca culture was located in the southern coast area of Peru in the desert day pampa in the Andean foothills.
  • Rio Grande de Nasca drainage area consists of several tributary rivers.
  • Found in Nasca region of the Peruvian Desert are ancient water systems called puquios that have similarities to qanats, karez, etc.
  • In Quecha, puquio denotes “source of water”, but also refers to natural springs or man-made water sources, i.e. sunken fields, irrigation canals, and irrigation galleries
  • Puquios are either (a) open trenches, (b) open trench with a filled trench gallery, or (c) a puquio with a tunneled extension as defined by Schreiber and Rojas (2003). Some also have branches called cangregeras.
  • The vertical holes along the puquio are referred to as
  • Puquios flow into small reservoirs called kochas at their lower end from where water is directed to the irrigation canals called acequias.
  • Date of initial construction roughly AD 400-500, according to: Schreiber and Rojas (2003), Irrigation and Society in the Peruvian Desert: The Puquios of Nasca, Lexington Books, NY
  • According to Schreiber and Rojas (2003) there is no evidence that the spiraling walkway was ever characteristic of the ojos, that these were an innovation created in 1986.
  • There are 29 puquios that are used to irrigate land in the Nasca Valley between elevations of 450 to 675 meters according to Schreiber and Rojas (2003).

Nasca region



Cantalloq puquio




Ojos – According to Schreiber and Rojas (2003) there is no evidence that the spiraling walkway was ever characteristic of the ojos, that these were an innovation created in 1986.

Showing in the background at the top of the mountains is Cerro Blanco, the highest sand dune in the world (2,078 m)

I am standing in the spiral walkway with the opening to the ojo.


Showing water in the bottom of the ojo.

Location of opening from gallery into the open trench of the puquio.

Location of opening from gallery into the open trench of the puquio.

Opening from gallery into the open trench of the puquio.

Location of open trench of the puquio.

Open trench of the puquio looking downstream of opening from gallery.

Looking upstream from kocha, showing open trench followed by the kocha.

Present-day kocha

Ocongalla puquio

Ocongalla puquio is an open-trench type of puquio approximately 600 m long emptying into a small kocha.  The pictures below are taken at the upper end of the trench where the pond is created that flows into the open-trench.  Water flows into the pond through three openings (locations from the ground) into the small pond.  Shown below is one of these three locations and the pond.




Notice the location just south of the Nasca River approximately six km east of the town of Nasca.



La Gobernadora puquio

Shows extent of the puquio.  Upper part is the tunneled gallery.

Shows upper part with the tunneled gallery.  The ojos don’t have the spiral walkway down the ojo.

Shows lower end of puquio which is an pen trench ending at the small kocha.


Cahuachi was the ceremonial center of the Nasca culture, consisting of several platform mounds and pyramids, and was located near the present-day town of Nasca.


Nasca Lines

In the desert pampa in the Andean foothills the people etched the geoglyphs, now referred to as the Nasca Lines.

The following are photos that I took in June 2017.

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