The Romans in Jordan

 

 

 

 

 

Petra

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Roman Street

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Fountain along collonade

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Sketch of Fountain

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Roman Street

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Channel

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Remains of Cistern

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Cistern

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Cistern entrance

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Cistern entrance

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Drainage channel

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Channel

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Bath

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Channel at bath

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Latrine

Gerasa at modern day Jerash

Gerasa is approximately 30 miles north of Amman in modern-day Jordan.  The city, also known as Antiocha on the Chrysorrhoas during the Helenistic times.  Gerasa was founded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.). Gerasa is divided by the Chrysorrhoas River.  Ancient ruins of the eastern part has been covered by the present-day town was most likely the residential part of Gerasa.  The western part was the heart of the city where the Temple of Artemis was located along with many monumental structures.

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Colonnadad avenue with the monumental columns crowned by  Corinthian capitals.  Several stormwater inlets are located along the street.

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Baths on north side of Gerasa

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Baths on north side of Gerasa

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Entrance to the cathedral on left and the nymphaeum on the right

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Water features along colonnaded avenue

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Small fountain along colonnaded avenue

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Water feature along colonnaded street.

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Nymphaeum along the colonnaded avenue.

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Drainage channel below nymphaeum wall

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Water basin in front of the nymphaeum wall

Maddaba

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Cistern at Maddaba

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Bath

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Ancient Water Technologies of the Nabataeans

Nabataean City of Petra (Jordan)

Nabataean Petra began around 300 BC from nomadic settlement origins.  The city was also occupied starting around 106 AD with final occupation to the 7th century AD.  Petra location was located between Egyptian, Babylonian, and Assyrian territories.  As a result over time many exterior cultural, political, and technological influenced the history of the Nabataean City.  The Nabataean kingdom included Jordan, the Hawran in southern Syria, Sinai, the Negev, a large part of the Hijaz in north-western Arabia, and for a short time it even included Damascus.   The verb “nabat” in Arabic means for water “to percolate from underground to the surface.”

Arabia-Egypt-Petra[1]

Petra’s location as an intersection for caravan trade from Arabia, Africa, and the Far East sustained the life and wealth of the city and allowing appropriate water supply infrastructure for its survival as a result of the complex topography and the limited water resources of the area.  Water infrastructure technology passed on through the ages obviously from the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Minoan, Hellenistic Greeks, and the Romans, Petra was able to develop magnificent water infrastructure for the arid area.  The Nabataeans had a tremendous understanding of the natural flow of water in the unique surroundings.  Water infrastructure included terraces, channels, settling basins, aqueducts, dams, rainwater harvesting, flood harvesting, groundwater harvesting, a large range of size and types of cisterns, reservoirs created by dams, water distribution tanks, and springs.  Throughout the Petra area there are hundreds of cisterns.

 

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The Treasury (Al Khazna)

DSC_4486 Road to entrance along Wadi Musa

DSC_4488 Near entrance along Wadi Musa

DSC_4489 At entrance showing new additions for diverting flows from the Siq and the ancient tunnel built by the Nabataeans for diverting flows from the Siq

DSC_3254 Entrance to Siq where Wadi Musa originally flowed.

DSC_4494 Flood bypass tunnel built by the Nabataeans near entrance to the Siq from Wadi Musa into Wadi Mudhlim through the tunnel Figure 1.16 W. Bachmann’s 1917 reconstruction of the entrance to the Siq with the plan above and the elevation above.  Also shown is the location of the flood bypass tunnel.

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Aqueduct along Siq , which is Wadi Musa.

DSC_4566 Outlet from cistern/settling basin

DSC_4786 Wadi Qantara inlet  with newly constructed dam structure in the background.  Cross-drainage structure for water channel (aqueduct) is shown with the two outlets.

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Wadi Qantara inlet showing the rock-cut steps to the sanctuary in the western cliff.

 

DSC_4561Aqueduct channel showing rock cover that once covered the aqueduct

DSC_4623 Stilling basin in Siq at bottom of Wadi Jilf after restoration.

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Shows stilling basin at outlet of Wadi Jilf. Two outlets in cross-drainage structure in background.

 

DSC_4534Settling basin along aqueduct in the Siq

DSC_4533 View of aqueduct along Siq

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DSC_4717 Along Siq showing aqueducts on both sides.

DSC_4811 At end of Siq is the Treasury (Al Khazna)

DSC_4927 Steps of the path to the High Place of Sacrfice along Wadi Al-Mahfur

DSC_4997 The High Place of Sacrifice.  Notice the outlet on the right for cleaning the sacrifice area.

DSC_4987 Small sacrifice area with drain and carved out area that could also collect water carved out chamber for storage of water.

DSC_4974 Cistern at the High Place

DSC_5087 Cistern at Triclinium of the Garden measures 18.2 m long, 6 m wide and 3.6 m deep.

DSC_5165 Retaining wall for cistern with an outlet

DSC_5157 Basin below the retaining wall of large cistern

DSC_5150 The Garden Tomb with the cistern retaining wall on the right at the Triclinium

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DSC_5170 Small cistern showing the foundations for the arches covering the cistern at the Garden Tomb DSC_5119 Sedimentation basin on path (steps) down from High Place to Triclinium

DSC_5129 Another view of sedimentation basin on path (steps) down from High Place to Triclinimum

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Cistern filled with sediment, channel leading to cistern in background.

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DSC_5049 Channel DSC_5050 Showing small cistern and channel

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Showing a natural system of runoff.  Water harvesting cavities can form at the base of this type of natural system.

Nabataean city of Little Petra

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In Little Petra looking back to entrance.

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Little Petra

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A cistern at the base of the cliff.

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Cisterns

 

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Note the level of the water in the cistern.

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Entrance to large cistern near entrance to Little Petra

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Steps into large cistern

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Inside large cistern.  To the right and above is where water entered the cistern

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Inside large cistern showing opening where water enters cistern.

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Outside of large cistern showing entrance and where water flows over the cliff to enter the cistern.

Wadi Al-M’aysra Ash Sharqiyya

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Reservoir embankment (dam) along Wadi

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Lower reservoir showing upper reservoir in the background.

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Embankment for upper reservoir.

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Looking downstream at two reservoirs.

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Caravan road along Wadi

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Caravan road along Wadi

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Caravan road along Wadi

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Settling basin for flow entering the larger cistern

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Shows the settling basin and the cistern

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Settling basin and cistern

DSC_5619   DSC_5616   DSC_6389 Cistern near entrance to Little Petra showing that the cistern was modified at some time

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Cistern showing channel into the cistern

DSC_6643   Cistern

 

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Cistern entrance and water channels leading to cistern

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Inside cistern above

DSC_6530  Cistern with steps receiving tank to left and then the settling tank.

DSC_6532  Cistern with settling basin and shows steps down into cistern

 

DSC_6432   Cistern

DSC_6447   Cistern

DSC_6789  Cistern with receiving tank and settling basin

DSC_6805   Channel to a cistern

DSC_6810 Entrance to a cistern

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Cistern

Nabataean city of ancient Hawara, modern Humayma or “Humeima”

Humayma was a small trading post and caravan way-station, founded by the Nabataean King Aretas III in the 80’s B.C.

The water management system was impressively developed for the settlement area taking in account the runoff potential of the area and the ability to design the settlement to capture the water.

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Reservoir possibly swimming pool)

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Each corner of reservoir (swimming pool) above has the step.

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Cistern that has been referred as a flood harvesting system.

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Closer view of cistern showing the arches used to support the cistern roof

DSC_7127 Rock-cut cistern with plaster on walls and support locations for the arch cover.

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Reservoir

DSC_0809 Settling tank for reservoir in above two photos showing aqueduct in background

Arabia-Egypt-Petra[1]

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Water technologies in the pre-Columbian Americas: The Inca

INCA

The Inca civilization emerged from fragmented independent societies by ca. 1000 AD (D’Altroy, 2003).  The extent of the Inca Empire included parts of modern day Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.  The small city-state of Cuzco became the capital under the rule of Pachacuti Inka Yupanki and represented a center of Tawantinsuyu (The Four Parts Together), i.e. the Inca Empire.

The Inca Empire was short-lived (lasting a little more than a 100 years) before collapsing as a result of the Spanish invasion.  During this short time period they were able to accomplish a great deal in architecture, engineering, and agriculture.

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General map of the Machu Picchu and Cuzco areas showing location of the Sacred Valley of the Inca(copyright with Dr. Yuri Gorokovich)

The area around Cuzco contains numerous historical sites with examples of water technologies.  Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and his sons designed and implemented water irrigation channels around Cuzco including fountains and culverts for springs. He built Tambo Machay, a spring shrine type structure which according to Spanish historian Bernabé Cobo served as a lodging for Pachacuti when he went hunting (Hemming, 1982).  Both, Tambo Machay and nearby Puca Pucara are huacas (“sacred things” or “anything in nature that is out of the ordinary”), that served primarily for religious services and worships (Bauer, 1998).

The Inca had a remarkable knowledge of engineering as evidenced by their roads, bridges, water systems, irrigation systems, and agricultural systems.  The Inca road system was massive and elegant covering much of the Andes from the present day borders of Columbia and Ecuador to south of Santiago, Chile.  This was the most extensive ancient construction in the Americas with approximately 23,000 km (nearly 13,000 miles that can now be charted) and possibly may have been twice as large.  The massive road system of the short-lived Inca Empire obviously was based upon not only the new construction of roads, but also some roads built by the pre-Inca.

The Incas practiced the art of agriculture carrying it to a “remarkable extreme” (Bingham, 1948).  They understood the cultivation of soil, irrigation of crops, agricultural drainage, fertilization of crops, and soil conservation using terraces (terrace agriculture) in most agricultural fields in the Peruvian Andes.  Pisac, developed as an estate for Inca royalty is one of the most spectacular examples of Inca agricultural practices.

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Sacred Valley near Pisac

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Condor Mountain above town of Pisac showing the agricultural terraces.

Machu Picchu, Peru

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Machu Picchu showing the Urubamba River below that circles around Machu Picchu.  The taller mountain peak of Huayna Picchu and shorter peak of Una Picchu.

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Another view of the urban area of Machu Picchu.

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Aqueduct channel flowing to fountains.

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Aqueduct channel into flowing to fountains.

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Fountain

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Stairway along fountains.

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Terraces

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Main Drain

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Smaller drainage channel

Temple of the Sun at Machu Picchu

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Looking down into the Temple of the Sun (with the curved wall), encloses the rock huaca.  Also shown is the window above the Royal Tomb.

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The Temple of the Sun at the top has the curved wall and as shown was built on a huge outcrop of granite.  Under the Temple is the Royal Tomb with the shaped stone that look like steps.

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Representing the interior world are the sculpted stairs that sing, located below the Temple of the Sun at Machu Picchu.

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This window in the wall of the Temple of the Sun overlooks the third fountain from the top fountain of the 16 fountains.  Note the unexplained small holes in the stones near the bottom of the window.

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Note the type of architecture that would have thatched roofs.

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Grain warehouses near the main entrance to Machu Picchu.  Note the thatched roofs that were attached using eye-anchors and roof pegs as first described by Bingham (1912).

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Rock with carved channel that may have been abandoned.

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Pisac

Pisac is one of the closest major ruins to Cuzco located in Yucay Valley near river Vilcanota  at elevation of 3400 m. Its history and origin are almost absent from chronicles, except from few notes by Sarmiento de Gamboa in his description of the valley of Pisac (Hemming, 1982). It is possible that this was a place visited by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui for pleasure but no historical documents reveal its history and origin.  Some architectural evidences, such as gates, defensive walls and stone pegs for doors show a possible military role of Pisac. The site structures are scattered along the mountain side and consist of granaries, living quarters, fortified barracks and series of beautiful agricultural terraces with irrigation channels.

The water use in Pisac was mainly for irrigation and religious services. The central inti-huatana (The Temple of Sun) in Pisac is surrounded by walls and has few baths and a water channel. The water channel comes out of the western side of the mountain and is about 20-25 cm wide. It is hard to reconstruct the original water works structure because extensive restoration projects at Pisac “mask” ancient remnants with more pleasing appearance that is catered for tourists.

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Agricultural terraces at Pisac which was developed as an estate for Inca royalty is one of the most spectacular examples of Inca agricultural practices.

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Agricultural terraces and fountains to the right

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Fountains

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Fountains with channel below

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Water channel below fountains and steps

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Water channel

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Central Inti-huatana shown in the curved wall area.

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Fountain near

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Channel downstream of fountain

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Channel flowing into ritual bath

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Location of fountains downstream of the ritual bath

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Terraces

Tipon

Tipon is located 23 km southeast of Cuzco at an elevation of 3560 m above mean sea level. It is made up of 12 terraces that are flanked by stone walls. In Tipon water was diverted from the Rio Pukara for irrigation and domestic supplies.  Three irrigation canals (aqueducts) diverted water upstream of Pukara, approximately 1.35 km north of Tipon’s central terraces. The main aqueduct diverted water from the river at an elevation of 3690
m.

Several fountains were built  Tipon. The principal fountain received water from the main spring near the top of the terraces.  This fountain provided domestic water supply
for the noble residents prior to use of the water for any other purpose.  Another fountain which supplied water for ceremonial purposes and for domestic water was located on the side of one of the terraces.  This fountain received water from a canal through an approach channel and conduit, then dropped into a stone basin.  The unused water flowed into another downstream canal that conveyed the water.  A fountain also was built in the Ceremonial Plaza.

The Central Terraces of Tipon

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Bottom of terraces and entrance to Tipon

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Central terraces

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Hydraulic drop structures near middle of central terraces.

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Terraces walls showing arrangement of steps from terrace to another.  Note the proximity to the hydraulic drop structure.

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Ceremonial fountain along terraces

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Spring with fountains below looking down the central terraces.

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Channels below springs that flow to fountains

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Above fountains showing diversion structure for fountains

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Upper two fountains

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Lower fountains

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View from below fountains

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Channel along terraces

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Channels along terraces

Ceremonial Plaza of Tipon

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Principal aqueduct channel from the Rio Pukara for irrigation and domestic supplies

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Bend in aqueduct channel from Rio Pukara.

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Principal aqueduct channel from the Rio Pukara

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Aqueduct bridge of principal canal from the Rio Pukara

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

Tambo Machay

Tambo Machay (“resting place” or “resting cave”) and Puca Pucara (“red fortress) are located within the walking distance from Cuzco and within 500 meters from each other, separated by the main road from Cuzco to Pisac. Comparing to Machu Picchu, Pisac and Tipon they represent water use technologies on a much smaller scale. Both, Tambo Machay and Puca Pucara have stone fountains with dual channels.

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Fountain area at Tambo Machay.

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Close-up view of the fountain at Tambo Machay with two channels to produce two water fountains.  Flowing water and duality were both important elements in Inca beliefs.  Also shows channel below fountain.

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Another fountain at Tambo Machay.

Olantaytambo

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Agricultural terraces

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Agricultural terrace with fountains in background

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Location of fountains

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Drainage channel along steep steps

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Fountains

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Close up of two of the fountains

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Inticchuariana observatory used to determine summer solstice.  Place where one sees and understands the sun.

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Fountains and terraces

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Fountain

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Fountain

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Building is the enclosure for the worship of water.

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Fountain inside building

 

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Puca Pucara

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Fountain showing two channels leading from fountain.

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Sacsayhuaman

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Fountain

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Fountain

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Qenqo

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Moray

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Moray is one of the most interesting of the agricultural areas as the Inca took advantage natural depressions constructing concentric terraces in the depressions.  Above is a succession of ceremonial fountains in the largest of three terrace complexes.  Moray in essence was an environmental/agricultural laboratory.

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Salt mines of Maras

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Salt mines of Maras

Chinchero

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Pre-Inca

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Ancient Water Technologies and Hydraulic Devices

Ancient Water Technologies

Figure 1.3

Qanatfoggara (North Africa) , falaj (United Arab Emirates, Arabia), khattara/ketthara (Morocco), galerias (Spain), karez/kariz (Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan), kanjering (China), which is a collection and conveyance system for groundwater that was originally developed in Persia.

Greek Water Technologies

Forthcoming

Roman Water Technologies

Figure 7.2

Components of Roman water supply systems

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Aqueduct arcade in Iasos, Turkey

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Aqueduct arcade of the Aqua Claudia ith the Aqua Anio Novus near the Roma Vecchia  outside of Rome.

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Castellum divisorium (Nimes, France)

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Aqueduct of Gorze (underground portion)

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Aqueduct bridge, Terragona, Spain

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Frabretti

Museum of the Ancient Roman Civilization, Rome, Italy

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Model of the Porta Maggoire in Rome

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Model of four chambered settling tank (piscina lumaria on the aqueduct Virgo, 19 B.C.) that was located on Pincian Hill in Rome.  Water entered the upper left chamber and flowed down to the lower chamber on the left then to the lower chamber on the right, then flows up to the upper chamber on the right and then to the aqueduct.

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Model of castellum divorsium at Nimes, France

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Model of fountain at Miletus

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Model of the overland section of the Aqua Marcia at Fosso dell” Acqua Rossa, Gallicano rel Lazio, Italy 144 B.C.

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Model of the overland section of the Aqua Marcia at Fosso dell” Acqua Rossa, Gallicano rel Lazio, Italy 144 B.C.

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Model of the entrance to the man-made outlet of Lake Albano, Albano, Italy, early 4th century B.C.

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Hydraulis

Components of water systems

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Stone drain grate

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Stone grain grate

Figure 7.11 (c)

Plug to underground channel (Perge, Turkey)

TERRACOTTA PIPE

Terracotta pipe (Ephesus, Turkey)

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Lead pipe with stone collars (Ephesus, Turkey)

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Lead pipe (Herculaneum, Italy)

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Segment of stone siphon (Patara, Turkey)

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Multipurpose basin in the distrbution system of Priene, Turkey.  One pipe entered the distribution basin and four pipes were fed from this basin.

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Terracotta pipes for roof drainage into cistern below floor of building.  Part of the rainfall harvesting in Pompeii, Italy.

 

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Water Technologies on Crete- post Minoans

Romans on Crete

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Roman fountain at Chersonisos, Crete

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Mosaic on fountain shows a fisherman and many fish.

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Closeup of fish and fisherman

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Cistern complex near Chersonisos

Gortyn

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Dreros (built on the slope of Mount Kadistos)

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Steps leading down into cistern at Dreros

Foundana Aqueduct

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Aqueduct bridge at Aghia Irini

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Gallery for the aqueduct bridge

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Gallery for the aqueduct bridge

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Aqueduct bridge

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Aqueduct bridge

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Watering location rainwater harvesting area with inlet to the ????

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Roman Water Technologies in France

Aqueduct of Nemausus near Nimes France
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Aqueduct bridge of the Pont du Gard of the aquedcut of Nemausus

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Tunnel of aqueduct just upstream of the aqueduct bridge (Pont du Gard).

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Channel on the aqudeuct bridge.

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Remains of aqueduct showing small aqueduct bridge upstream of the Pont du Gard.

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Remains of aqueduct of Nemausus

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Remains of aqueduct

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Remains of of castellum divisorium in ancient Nemausas (Nimes, France)

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Model of castellum divisorium in ancient Nemausas (Nimes, France).  Model located at the Museum of the Ancient Roman Civilization in Rome.

Aqueduct of Gorze near Metz, France

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Remains of aqueduct bridge on the Moselle River

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Remains of aqueduct bridge (upstream)

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Aqueduct bridge

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Two channels of aqueduct before entering bridge with aqueduct in background.

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Close-up of aqueduct division into two channels before entering bridge.

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Two channels of aqueduct entering the castellum (circular) at the end of the bridge.

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Aqueduct of Gorze

Ancient Lugdunum near Lyon, France

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Aqueduct of Gier arcade near Beaunant, France

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Aqueduct of Gier

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Aqueduct of Gier arcade

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Ramp of siphon near Beaunant, France

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Water Technologies of Ancient Athens, Greece

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The Acropolis

Archaic (750 – 480 BC) and Classical (480 – 323) Periods 

Peisistratean aqueduct – constructed in Athens during the time of tyrant Peisistratos and descendents, ca. 510 BC. This aqueduct carried water from the foothill of Hymettos mountain (probably east of the present Holargos suburb) for a distance of 7.5 km to the center of the city near the Acropolis.

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Terracotta pipe segments of the Peisistratean aqueduct laid in a channel.

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Exhibit of pipe segments and rectangular shaped conveyance channels with cover.

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Lead pipe joint and ellipitical pipe openning for cleaning of the Peisistratean aqueduct.

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Romans in Athens

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Hadrians Aqueduct

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Mill race (branch of Hadrian’s aqueduct) for Roman mill in Athenian Agora.

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Wheel pit (wheel race) for Roman water mill in Athenian Agora.

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Well in Athenian Agora.

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Roman cistern below Acropolis in Athens.

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Byzantine cistern below Acropolis

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