Water technologies in the pre-Columbian Americas: The Inca

INCA

The Inca civilization emerged from fragmented independent societies by ca. 1000 AD (D’Altroy, 2003).  The extent of the Inca Empire included parts of modern day Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.  The small city-state of Cuzco became the capital under the rule of Pachacuti Inka Yupanki and represented a center of Tawantinsuyu (The Four Parts Together), i.e. the Inca Empire.

The Inca Empire was short-lived (lasting a little more than a 100 years) before collapsing as a result of the Spanish invasion.  During this short time period they were able to accomplish a great deal in architecture, engineering, and agriculture.

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General map of the Machu Picchu and Cuzco areas showing location of the Sacred Valley of the Inca(copyright with Dr. Yuri Gorokovich)

The area around Cuzco contains numerous historical sites with examples of water technologies.  Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and his sons designed and implemented water irrigation channels around Cuzco including fountains and culverts for springs. He built Tambo Machay, a spring shrine type structure which according to Spanish historian Bernabé Cobo served as a lodging for Pachacuti when he went hunting (Hemming, 1982).  Both, Tambo Machay and nearby Puca Pucara are huacas (“sacred things” or “anything in nature that is out of the ordinary”), that served primarily for religious services and worships (Bauer, 1998).

The Inca had a remarkable knowledge of engineering as evidenced by their roads, bridges, water systems, irrigation systems, and agricultural systems.  The Inca road system was massive and elegant covering much of the Andes from the present day borders of Columbia and Ecuador to south of Santiago, Chile.  This was the most extensive ancient construction in the Americas with approximately 23,000 km (nearly 13,000 miles that can now be charted) and possibly may have been twice as large.  The massive road system of the short-lived Inca Empire obviously was based upon not only the new construction of roads, but also some roads built by the pre-Inca.

The Incas practiced the art of agriculture carrying it to a “remarkable extreme” (Bingham, 1948).  They understood the cultivation of soil, irrigation of crops, agricultural drainage, fertilization of crops, and soil conservation using terraces (terrace agriculture) in most agricultural fields in the Peruvian Andes.  Pisac, developed as an estate for Inca royalty is one of the most spectacular examples of Inca agricultural practices.

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Sacred Valley near Pisac

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Condor Mountain above town of Pisac showing the agricultural terraces.

Machu Picchu, Peru

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Machu Picchu showing the Urubamba River below that circles around Machu Picchu.  The taller mountain peak of Huayna Picchu and shorter peak of Una Picchu.

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Another view of the urban area of Machu Picchu.

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Aqueduct channel flowing to fountains.

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Aqueduct channel into flowing to fountains.

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Fountain

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Stairway along fountains.

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Terraces

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Main Drain

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Smaller drainage channel

Temple of the Sun at Machu Picchu

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Looking down into the Temple of the Sun (with the curved wall), encloses the rock huaca.  Also shown is the window above the Royal Tomb.

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The Temple of the Sun at the top has the curved wall and as shown was built on a huge outcrop of granite.  Under the Temple is the Royal Tomb with the shaped stone that look like steps.

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Representing the interior world are the sculpted stairs that sing, located below the Temple of the Sun at Machu Picchu.

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This window in the wall of the Temple of the Sun overlooks the third fountain from the top fountain of the 16 fountains.  Note the unexplained small holes in the stones near the bottom of the window.

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Note the type of architecture that would have thatched roofs.

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Grain warehouses near the main entrance to Machu Picchu.  Note the thatched roofs that were attached using eye-anchors and roof pegs as first described by Bingham (1912).

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Rock with carved channel that may have been abandoned.

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Pisac

Pisac is one of the closest major ruins to Cuzco located in Yucay Valley near river Vilcanota  at elevation of 3400 m. Its history and origin are almost absent from chronicles, except from few notes by Sarmiento de Gamboa in his description of the valley of Pisac (Hemming, 1982). It is possible that this was a place visited by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui for pleasure but no historical documents reveal its history and origin.  Some architectural evidences, such as gates, defensive walls and stone pegs for doors show a possible military role of Pisac. The site structures are scattered along the mountain side and consist of granaries, living quarters, fortified barracks and series of beautiful agricultural terraces with irrigation channels.

The water use in Pisac was mainly for irrigation and religious services. The central inti-huatana (The Temple of Sun) in Pisac is surrounded by walls and has few baths and a water channel. The water channel comes out of the western side of the mountain and is about 20-25 cm wide. It is hard to reconstruct the original water works structure because extensive restoration projects at Pisac “mask” ancient remnants with more pleasing appearance that is catered for tourists.

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Agricultural terraces at Pisac which was developed as an estate for Inca royalty is one of the most spectacular examples of Inca agricultural practices.

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Agricultural terraces and fountains to the right

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Fountains

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Fountains with channel below

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Water channel below fountains and steps

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Water channel

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Central Inti-huatana shown in the curved wall area.

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Fountain near

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Channel downstream of fountain

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Channel flowing into ritual bath

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Location of fountains downstream of the ritual bath

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Terraces

Tipon

Tipon is located 23 km southeast of Cuzco at an elevation of 3560 m above mean sea level. It is made up of 12 terraces that are flanked by stone walls. In Tipon water was diverted from the Rio Pukara for irrigation and domestic supplies.  Three irrigation canals (aqueducts) diverted water upstream of Pukara, approximately 1.35 km north of Tipon’s central terraces. The main aqueduct diverted water from the river at an elevation of 3690
m.

Several fountains were built  Tipon. The principal fountain received water from the main spring near the top of the terraces.  This fountain provided domestic water supply
for the noble residents prior to use of the water for any other purpose.  Another fountain which supplied water for ceremonial purposes and for domestic water was located on the side of one of the terraces.  This fountain received water from a canal through an approach channel and conduit, then dropped into a stone basin.  The unused water flowed into another downstream canal that conveyed the water.  A fountain also was built in the Ceremonial Plaza.

The Central Terraces of Tipon

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Bottom of terraces and entrance to Tipon

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Central terraces

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Hydraulic drop structures near middle of central terraces.

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Terraces walls showing arrangement of steps from terrace to another.  Note the proximity to the hydraulic drop structure.

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Ceremonial fountain along terraces

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Spring with fountains below looking down the central terraces.

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Channels below springs that flow to fountains

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Above fountains showing diversion structure for fountains

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Upper two fountains

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Lower fountains

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View from below fountains

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Channel along terraces

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Channels along terraces

Ceremonial Plaza of Tipon

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Principal aqueduct channel from the Rio Pukara for irrigation and domestic supplies

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Bend in aqueduct channel from Rio Pukara.

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Principal aqueduct channel from the Rio Pukara

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Aqueduct bridge of principal canal from the Rio Pukara

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

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Fountain in Ceremonial Plaza

Tambo Machay

Tambo Machay (“resting place” or “resting cave”) and Puca Pucara (“red fortress) are located within the walking distance from Cuzco and within 500 meters from each other, separated by the main road from Cuzco to Pisac. Comparing to Machu Picchu, Pisac and Tipon they represent water use technologies on a much smaller scale. Both, Tambo Machay and Puca Pucara have stone fountains with dual channels.

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Fountain area at Tambo Machay.

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Close-up view of the fountain at Tambo Machay with two channels to produce two water fountains.  Flowing water and duality were both important elements in Inca beliefs.  Also shows channel below fountain.

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Another fountain at Tambo Machay.

Olantaytambo

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Agricultural terraces

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Agricultural terrace with fountains in background

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Location of fountains

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Drainage channel along steep steps

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Fountains

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Close up of two of the fountains

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Inticchuariana observatory used to determine summer solstice.  Place where one sees and understands the sun.

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Fountains and terraces

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Fountain

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Fountain

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Building is the enclosure for the worship of water.

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Fountain inside building

 

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Puca Pucara

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Fountain showing two channels leading from fountain.

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Sacsayhuaman

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Fountain

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Fountain

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Qenqo

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Moray

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Moray is one of the most interesting of the agricultural areas as the Inca took advantage natural depressions constructing concentric terraces in the depressions.  Above is a succession of ceremonial fountains in the largest of three terrace complexes.  Moray in essence was an environmental/agricultural laboratory.

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Salt mines of Maras

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Salt mines of Maras

Chinchero

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Pre-Inca

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Ancient Water Technologies and Hydraulic Devices

Ancient Water Technologies

Figure 1.3

Qanatfoggara (North Africa) , falaj (United Arab Emirates, Arabia), khattara/ketthara (Morocco), galerias (Spain), karez/kariz (Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan), kanjering (China), which is a collection and conveyance system for groundwater that was originally developed in Persia.

Greek Water Technologies

Forthcoming

Roman Water Technologies

Figure 7.2

Components of Roman water supply systems

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Aqueduct arcade in Iasos, Turkey

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Aqueduct arcade of the Aqua Claudia ith the Aqua Anio Novus near the Roma Vecchia  outside of Rome.

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Castellum divisorium (Nimes, France)

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Aqueduct of Gorze (underground portion)

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Aqueduct bridge, Terragona, Spain

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Frabretti

Museum of the Ancient Roman Civilization, Rome, Italy

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Roman tap (rotary plug) made of bronze

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Model of the Porta Maggoire in Rome

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Model of four chambered settling tank (piscina lumaria on the aqueduct Virgo, 19 B.C.) that was located on Pincian Hill in Rome.  Water entered the upper left chamber and flowed down to the lower chamber on the left then to the lower chamber on the right, then flows up to the upper chamber on the right and then to the aqueduct.

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Model of castellum divorsium at Nimes, France

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Model of fountain at Miletus

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Model of the overland section of the Aqua Marcia at Fosso dell” Acqua Rossa, Gallicano rel Lazio, Italy 144 B.C.

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Model of the overland section of the Aqua Marcia at Fosso dell” Acqua Rossa, Gallicano rel Lazio, Italy 144 B.C.

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Model of the entrance to the man-made outlet of Lake Albano, Albano, Italy, early 4th century B.C.

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Hydraulis

Components of water systems

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Stone drain grate

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Stone grain grate

Figure 7.11 (c)

Plug to underground channel (Perge, Turkey)

TERRACOTTA PIPE

Terracotta pipe (Ephesus, Turkey)

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Lead pipe with stone collars (Ephesus, Turkey)

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Lead pipe (Herculaneum, Italy)

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Segment of stone siphon (Patara, Turkey)

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Multipurpose basin in the distrbution system of Priene, Turkey.  One pipe entered the distribution basin and four pipes were fed from this basin.

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Terracotta pipes for roof drainage into cistern below floor of building.  Part of the rainfall harvesting in Pompeii, Italy.

 

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Water Technologies on Crete- post Minoans

Romans on Crete

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Roman fountain at Chersonisos, Crete

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Mosaic on fountain shows a fisherman and many fish.

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Closeup of fish and fisherman

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Cistern complex near Chersonisos

Gortyn

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Dreros (built on the slope of Mount Kadistos)

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Steps leading down into cistern at Dreros

Foundana Aqueduct

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Aqueduct bridge at Aghia Irini

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Gallery for the aqueduct bridge

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Gallery for the aqueduct bridge

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Aqueduct bridge

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Aqueduct bridge

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Watering location rainwater harvesting area with inlet to the ????

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Roman Water Technologies in France

Aqueduct of Nemausus near Nimes France
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Aqueduct bridge of the Pont du Gard of the aquedcut of Nemausus

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Tunnel of aqueduct just upstream of the aqueduct bridge (Pont du Gard).

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Channel on the aqudeuct bridge.

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Remains of aqueduct showing small aqueduct bridge upstream of the Pont du Gard.

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Remains of aqueduct of Nemausus

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Remains of aqueduct

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Remains of of castellum divisorium in ancient Nemausas (Nimes, France)

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Model of castellum divisorium in ancient Nemausas (Nimes, France).  Model located at the Museum of the Ancient Roman Civilization in Rome.

Aqueduct of Gorze near Metz, France

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Remains of aqueduct bridge on the Moselle River

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Remains of aqueduct bridge (upstream)

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Aqueduct bridge

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Two channels of aqueduct before entering bridge with aqueduct in background.

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Close-up of aqueduct division into two channels before entering bridge.

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Two channels of aqueduct entering the castellum (circular) at the end of the bridge.

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Aqueduct of Gorze

Ancient Lugdunum near Lyon, France

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Aqueduct of Gier arcade near Beaunant, France

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Aqueduct of Gier

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Aqueduct of Gier arcade

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Ramp of siphon near Beaunant, France

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Water Technologies of Ancient Athens, Greece

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The Acropolis

Archaic (750 – 480 BC) and Classical (480 – 323) Periods 

Peisistratean aqueduct – constructed in Athens during the time of tyrant Peisistratos and descendents, ca. 510 BC. This aqueduct carried water from the foothill of Hymettos mountain (probably east of the present Holargos suburb) for a distance of 7.5 km to the center of the city near the Acropolis.

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Terracotta pipe segments of the Peisistratean aqueduct laid in a channel.

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Exhibit of pipe segments and rectangular shaped conveyance channels with cover.

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Lead pipe joint and ellipitical pipe openning for cleaning of the Peisistratean aqueduct.

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Romans in Athens

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Hadrians Aqueduct

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Mill race (branch of Hadrian’s aqueduct) for Roman mill in Athenian Agora.

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Wheel pit (wheel race) for Roman water mill in Athenian Agora.

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Well in Athenian Agora.

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Roman cistern below Acropolis in Athens.

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Byzantine cistern below Acropolis

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Minoan Water Systems on Crete

The Minoans were a great Bronze Age civilization that peaked during the second millennium B.C. on Crete.  They had built multistory complexes, now referred to as “palaces,” which were actually distribution centers for large quantities of goods such as olive oil, wine, and grains.  The platial architecture featured colonnaded courtyards, sliding doors, and external staircases.  The monumental stone buildings were braced with wood beams.  Water technologies included running water within the palaces and other settlements, drainage systems, piping systems, rainwater harvesting, and other technologies.

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Source: Gorokhovich, Y., L.W. Mays, L. Ullmann, A Survey of Ancient Minoan Water Technologies, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, IWA, Vol. 114, pp. 388 – 399, 2011.

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Map of eastern part of Crete (copyright with Yuri Gorokhovich)

Water Technologies of the Minoans

Water Technologies of Minoans

Source: Gorokhovich, Y., L.W. Mays, L. Ullmann, A Survey of Ancient Minoan Water Technologies, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, IWA, Vol. 114, pp. 388 – 399, 2011.

Models of Minoan residents at Museum in Heraklion

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Tylissos, Crete

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Aqueduct leading into Tylissos from the Spring of Agios Mamas

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Sedimentation tank, cistern, and channel from tank to cistern at Tylissos, Crete

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Top view of sedimentation tank. Closeup of sedimentation tank showing the lower outlet to drain tank and the overflow outlet to the channel that leads to the cistern

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Channel that leads from sedimentation tank to cistern.

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Stairs leading down into cistern taken inside cistern showing the plastering on the walls of the cistern

Kato Zakros

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Kato Zakros to the left of the photo

Well at Kato Zakros

Well at Kato Zakros

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Cistern at Kato Zakros

Knossos

Knossos is the most known and largest of the palaces, which was discovered in the early 20th century by Sir Arthur Evans.  The Minoan civilization declined with the arrival of the Dorians that settled on the Crete between 1100 ad 900 B.C.

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Bastion A at the north entrance showing the bull fresco.

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Theater

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Model of Knossos at Museum in Heraklion

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Model of Knossos showing three koulares

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Two of the three

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One of three possible cisterns

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Drainage channel

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Terracottta pipe

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Stormwater drainage channel

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Carved stone elements of rainwater harvesting system collecting water fram roof through light well.

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Stone channel

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Main drain lutlet

Stepped water channe bwl

Stepped water channel and sedimentation (desilting basin).  Along the stairway is a small
channel (for rainwater collection) consisting of a series parabolic-shaped
stepped chutes that convey rainwater down steam to the sedimentation tank or
basin.

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Photo by Susi Mays

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Sedimentation/desilting basin Photo by Susi Mays

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Area for storing wine or olive oil in vessels

Phaistos

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Phaistos with Messara Plain in background

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Courtyard also used for rainfall harvesting with cisterns (round structures) shown in background to the right.

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Cistern

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Exit of main drain at southern end of palace.

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Agia Triadha

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Channel empties into sedimentation basin (Photo by susi Mays)

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Sedimentation basin

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Channel downstream of sedimentation basin located in the background to the right.

Kommos

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Boat dock facility

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Well

Myrtos-Pyrgos

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Location of Myrtos-Pyrgos on top of hill

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View from top of hill

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Cistern

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Plaster on cistern wall

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Cistern

Mallia (near town of Ierapetra)

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Mallia. Note the eight round structures (Koulares)

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Round structures at Mallia

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Magazine storage area for storing olive oil

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Magazine

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Palaikastro

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Well at Palaikastro

Kato Syme

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Kato Syme

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Gournia

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Ancient Water Systems of Turkey

The remains of hydraulic works from 4000 years make Anatolia one of the overwhelming open-air museums of its kind. – Professor Unal Ozis

Aqueduct of Mylasa

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Aqueduct arcade of aqueduct that supplied Mylasa located at Milas, Turkey

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Aqueduct arcade of aqueduct that supplied Mylasa located at Milas, Turkey

Ephesus

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Ephesus

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Aqueduct bridge of the Selinus aqueduct to Ephesus.

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Lead pipe used in aqueduct. Located in museum at Selchik

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Cistern along the Selinus aqueduct in Selchik

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Fountain of Trajan constructed during the beginning of the second century AD.

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TERRACOTTA PIPE

Pipes

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Latrine

Latrine

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Water facility inside a house

Aspendos, Turkey

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North tower of the triple siphon.

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Taken inside the north tower of the triple siphon

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Aqueduct arcade of the triple siphon

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Fountain of Aspendos supplied by the aqueduct

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South tower of the triple siphon

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Aqueduct arcade of the triple siphon showing the south tower in the background

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Drainage system channels

Iasos

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Cistern

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Cistern

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Cistern

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Aqueduct arcade

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Aqueduct arcade

Miletas, Turkey

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Fountain with aqueduct in background

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Model of fountain at Miletas at the Museum of the Ancient Roman Civilization, rome Italy

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View of aqueduct and side of fountain at Miletus

Pergamon near Bergama, Turkey

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Theatre with Bergama in the background

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Location of the double siphon showing the venter bridges

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Venter bridge

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Perge

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Fountain

Two-story monumental fountain where water overflowed into a canal that divided the colonnaded street.  Covered canal delivered water to a pool behind the façade.  Water from the pool flowed through an opening just below the reclining statue of the river god Cestrus.
Fountain and the canal downstream which divided the colonnaded street.

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Canal downstream of fountain. Canal divided the colonnaded street

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View showing backside of fountain

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Bath at Perge

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Bath showing hypocaust.

Side, Turkey

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Temple of Apollo

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Temple of Apollo

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Fountain at Side

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Close-up view of fountain at Side

Alabonda

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Patara

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Inverted siphon made of stone blocks

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Stone pipe block showing male end.

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Stone pipe block showing female end.

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Stone pipe block with guide for sluice gate.

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Stone pipe block with drain outlet.

Priene

Priene was a Helenistic town situated at the northern shore of the Gret Meandros River.

 

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Termessos

Termessos was an ancient Pisidian city locatedabout 53 km northwest of Antalya, Turkey in a valley on the steep slopes of theGulluk in the Taurus Mountains at an elevation of over 1,000 m.  What is known of the history of Termessos begins when Alexander the Great surrounded the city in 333 BC, but failed to conquer.  The people of Termessos were the Solyms, not Greeks, and spoke a language referred to as Solymish.ermessos

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Cistern

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Cistern on mountain side near entrance to Termessos

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Line of cisterns with five opennings

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Cistern

Istanbul

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

Valens Aqueduct

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The Valens Aqueduct was built by Hadrian in 368 A.D., but was restored by emperor Valens.  The aqueduct is about 15 km from the Mazul Aqueduct.

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Valens aqueduct

Aqueduct_of_Valens

 

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Ottoman water tower accross from Haghia Sophia, on top of which was a container.  Thirty of the original water towers still exist.  This tower is at the Basicilica Cistern

Basilica Cistern

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Yerebatan Basilica Cistern (138 x 64.5 m with 336 columns (Photo by Susi Mays)

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Basilica Cistern

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Madusa head

Ottoman Empire

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Taksim and Kirkcesme Water Systems – Ottoman Period

The Kirkcesme water system was constructed between 1554 and 1563.

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Kirkcesme Water System

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Bas Havuz

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Bashavuz pool (sediment pool) of the Kirkcesme water system.  Located at the confluence of the eastern and western branches of the Kirkcesme water system.  Cylindrical in shape the diameter is 13.83 meters at the entrance and theh second stage is 9.80 meters in diameter, and can have a depth of 7.98 meters.

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Taksim  Water System

The Taksim Water System was built between 1731 and 1839 at various stages.

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Sultan Mahmud Dam built by Mahmud II in 1839.  (Photo by Susi Mays)

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Inscription by written by Ziver and the calligraphy by Mustafa Izzet.  On top is the seal of Mahmud II

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

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Su Luleleri A Lule is 52 cubic meters per day)

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

Kirkcesme Water System

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Kirikkemer aqueduct bridge (part of the Kirkcesme water system)

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Gallery (Photo by Susi Mays)

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(Photo by Susi Mays)

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Water Technologies of Ancient Rome and Surrounding Areas

The Aqueducts of Rome

Gilbert Bagnani – “The sport of aqueduct trailing is a delightful one, which entails, however, a very considerable amount of physical energy,” The Roman Campagna and its Treasures, Methuen & Company Limited, p. 203.

From the founding of Rome for almost four and a half centures the little city had no outside water supply other than the Tiber River, wells, and springs.  Rome built a walled city between 378 and 352 B.C., with the population increasing significantly by 312 B.C.  The first aqueduct built (312 B.C.) was the Aqua Appia that was constructed underground.  For more than five centuries Rome built eleven aqueducts that brought water into the city.  The aqueduct names are:  Appia – Anio Vetus – Marcia – Tepula – Julia – Virgo – Alsietina – Claudia – Anio Novus – Trajana – Alexandrina.

Raffaele Fabretti in 1680 described the aqueducts as the fruits of Rome’s foresight and greatness (Romanae providentiae magnitudinis que primitiae)

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Photo shows the Circus Maxima and Palatine Hill above.  Palatine Hill is the most ancient part of the city upon a hill overlooking the Forum on one side and the Circus Maxima on the other.

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Model of ancient Rome at the Museum of the Ancient Civilization of Rome, Rome.  Shows Nero’s Branch aqueduct that supplied water to Palatine Hill to the left, and also showing the Colesium.

Aqueduct to Palatine Hill

The Aqua Nero branch (along Via di S. Gregorio between the Arch of Constantine and the Circus Maximus) leading to Palatine Hill and Caelian.  Branch Aqua Nero began at the Porta Maggiore, tapping the Aqua Claudia.   The brick facing is mostly modern.

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Aqueduct Claudia near the farmhouse of Romavecchia

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Aqua Marcia (in background) seen through an arch of the Aqua Claudia

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Aqueduct Claudia with Aqua Anio Novus near the farmhouse of Roma Vecchia

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Aqua Marcia

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Aqua Claudia along side railroad tracks to Naples.

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Aqua Marcia,

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Aqua Marcia constructed in 144 B.C. with the Aqua Tepula and Aqua Julia channels on top constructed in 33 B.C. by Agrippa. Note the cement covered channel on top of the arcade.  This is the still functioning Aqua Felice built in 1585.

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Remains of cistern that tapped water from the Aqua Marcia at the Villa Vignacce (constructed by Hadrian in A.D. 123).  A water shaft with a vertical holding basin was built between the aqueduct and cistern that served as a settling tank.  The cistern was a two story tank divided into three chambers on the bottom and four on the top story.

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Branch aqueduct of the Aqua Claudia, located along Via Appia Antica.

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Aqua Marcia (c0nstructed 144 B.C.) with remains of the Aqua Tepula on top at Romavecchia.

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Model of Porta Maggoire at Museum of the Roman Civilization

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At the Porta Maggoire with Aqua Marcia on top and Anio Novus on the bottom.

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The Aqua Marcia is shown with the Aqua Tepula (in the middle) and Aqua Julia (on top) at the Porta Maggiore.  A pier of the Aqua Marcia is preserved in the Aurelian Wall.

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Near the beginning of the Aqua Nero arcade near Porta Maggiore

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Aqua Nero arcade

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Aqua Nero arcade

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Aqua Nero arcade

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Secondary castellum near main train station in Rome

Baths of Caracalla (Thermae Antoninianae)

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Baths of Caracalla (Thermae Antoninianae), supplied by a branch of the Aqua Marcia called Aqua Antoniniana starting near Porta Furba.

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Aqua Antoniniana that supplied water to the large cisterns of the Baths of Caracalla.  The cisterns were located on the south side of the baths along Via Baccelli.  The arcade of the Aqua Antoniniana shown above is on the opposite side of the cisterns. A roadside park is shown with the arcade being part of a wall of Villa Pepoli.  Water was stored in the (32 chambers each two stories high) of the cisterns.

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Aqua Antoniniana

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Plan of Baths of Caracalla (Thermae Antoninianae)

Rekonstruierter Grundriss der Caracalla-Thermen. Quelle, Wilhelm Lübke, Max Semrau Grundriß der Kunstgeschichte. Paul Neff Verlag, Esslingen, 14. Auflage 1908.

Rekonstruierter Grundriss der Caracalla-Thermen. Quelle: Wilhelm Lübke, Max Semrau: Grundriß der Kunstgeschichte. Paul Neff Verlag, Esslingen, 14. Auflage 1908.

  • A-Calidarium
  • B-Nymphaeum
  • C-Great      Hall
  • D-Frigidarium      (Swimming Pool)
  • E-Courts
  • G-Palaestra
  • H-Lecture      Halls
  • I-Vestibules
  • L-Dressing      Rooms
  • N-Steam      Baths
  • Q-Lounges
  • S-Gymnasia
  • T-Study      Rooms
  • V-Nymphaea

Bildbeschreibung Innenraum der Caracalla-Thermen (Tepidarium), aus F.A. Genzmer Bade- und Schwimm-Anstalten, Stuttgart 1899

Bildbeschreibung: Innenraum der Caracalla-Thermen (Tepidarium), aus: F.A. Genzmer: Bade- und Schwimm-Anstalten, Stuttgart 1899

Fountain

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Collesium

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Exit of Cloaca Maxima to the Tiber River

Ostia Antica – near Rome

Ostia was developed in 386 B.C., functioning as part of the imperial port system of Rome, located some 20 miles from Rome at the mouth of the Tiber River.  Portus, built in the 1st century A.D. and located to the north of Ostia, became Rome’s principal maritime harbor as Ostia was more limited in its ability to handle a large number of ships.

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Public lavatory (latrine) at Tridlinon area

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Fountain on right.  Water from fountain was reused in the latrine shown on the rigth in the photo.

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Latrine

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Latrine

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Heating system for bath showing terracotta conduit through which hot air passed

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Heating system for bath showing terracotta conduit through which hot air passed.

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Cistern

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Small fountain

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Cistern

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Fountain in the Decumanus

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Fountain

Herculaneum

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Lead pipe at Herculaneum (photo by Susi Mays)

Tivoli, Italy: Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriano)

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The Canopus ornamental pool and channel.

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Baths in background.

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Baths

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Roman Water Technologies in Spain

Chuelva, Spain

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Tarragona, Spain

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Tarragona, Spain (Photo copyright by Susi K. Mays)

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Ancient Emerita Augustus – Merida, Spain

In 25 B.C. Emerita Augusta (present day Merida, Spain) became a colony and a century later the Romans had built an extensive water supply system.  Three aqueducts ( Proserpina, Cornalvo, and Las Tomas) supplied water to Emerita Augusta supplied by two dams and a spring, respectively.

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Roman bridge on the Rio Guadiana in Emerita Augustus

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Roman bridge

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Prosopenia reservoir and dam that supplied water to the Proserpina aqueduct.   The Adelfas and Pardillas streams supplied water to the reservoir.  The dam has been undergone alterations over the years.  the dam is approximately 425 meters long and 21 meters deep.  There are nine adjoining buttresses (built with granite blocks) of rectangular cross-section laid as a stepped structure.

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Prospenia dam showing that the dam wall is reinforced by earth on the downstream side of the dam.

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Cornalvo reservoir and dam located 15 kilometers north-east of Merida.  Dam is approximately 200 meters long and 18 meters high.  The dam was built with a concrete interior core and erected with granite b;locks and slabs.  The downstream side of the dam is earthen to help support the dam wall.  Notice the intake tower with the bridge to the tower.

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Proserpenia aqueduct bridge known as the Los Milagros aqueduct bridge accross the Rio Albarregas.  Water was delivered into the city via the Calvery Hill.

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Fountain supplied by Los Milagros aqueduct in background

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Remains and reconstruction of the settling tank (piscina limaria) downstream of the Los Milagros bridge on the hill top.

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Only remains of the Las Thomas aqueduct bridge across the Rio Albarregas located near the hippodrome.

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Material from the Los Tomas aqueduct bridge was used to build this aqueduct across the Rio Albarregas by the Muslims.

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Los Thomas aqueduct downstream of the aqueduct bridge near the Roman theater.  Notice the lion-head gargoyle carved from stone that was used as a gutter spout.

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Los Thomas aqueduct downstream of the aqueduct bridge across the Rio Albarregas

Cornalvo Aqueduct

Remains of Cornalvo aqueduct supplying water from the Cornalvo dam to Emerita Augusta

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Segovia, Spain

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Aqueduct bridge in Segovia

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Illici, Spain

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Cistern

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Types of piping found at Illici

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Lead pipes

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Terracota pipes

Consuegra, Spain

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Remains of the Roman dam and reservoir near Consuegra, Spain

Lucentum near Alicante, Spain

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Reconstruction of bath at Lucentum.  This photo shows the hypocaust (hypocaustum) which was a the system for underfloor heating used in buildings and and hot baths (thermae).    The pillars (pilae stacks)

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The Serino aqueduct was constructed (33 to 12 B.C.) during the Augustus period of the Roman Empire and extended approximately 100 km from its origin (the Acquaro-Pelosi spring in the village of Serino)  to Miseno.  The aqueduct supplied water to Pompei, Herculaneum, and the Piscina Mirabilis.  The principle purpose of the aqueduct was to refurbish the Roman fleet of Misenum (Miseno).  The secondary  reason was to supply water for the increasing demand of the important harbor of Puteoli (Pozzuoli), as well as drinking water for a number of cities.

On August 24-25, 79 A.D. Mount Vesuvius erupted destroying Pompeii, Herculaneum, and other towns.  Prior to that the mountain had been green with olive groves and vineyards.

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Pompeii (located near the Bay of Naples, south-southeast of Mt. Vesius) had a water supply that was representative of Roman  urban water distribution systems.  Sources of water included wells, cisterns, other reservoirs, and the Serino aqueduct.  This aqueduct received water from the springs at Serino near Avellino, and then was routed to Pompeii terminating at the castellum at Porta Vesuvii shown below.

Pompei, Italy Castellum

Pompei, Italy Castellum

Castellum divorsium at Porta Vesuvii used to divert flow to various geographical areas of Pompeii.  Note the three opennings in front of the building from which lead pipes were used to deliver water to Pompeii.

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Shows the exit from the aqueduct into the castellum divorsium.  Note the three channels (one in the center and one on each side) that were used to divert flow to geographical areas of Pompeii.   These channels were gated to adjust the amount of flow.

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Openning into aqueduct branch behind castellum

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Aqueduct branch leading into castellum

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On left side of street is a secondary castellum with adjacent fountain.  Lead tank was located on top of the column which was supplied with water from the lead pipes that were located in the indented area of the colmun.

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Fountain

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Lead pipes and manifold

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Lead junction box

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Terracotta pipe for rainwater harvesting from roofs.  Pipes drained water into cisterns in individual buildings.

Herculaneum

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View near modern day entrance

 

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Window with volcanic ash

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Lead pipes along sidewalk

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Lead pipe on sidewalk along street

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View of men’s waiting room at the Forum baths.  Basin at in the back on the left side is for washing feet and the round marble basin is for washing hands.

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Marble basin for washing hands

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Piscina Mirabilis

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